Friday, March 13, 2020
Shooting an Elephant Essays Shooting an Elephant Essay Shooting an Elephant Essay Ã¢â¬Å"Shooting an ElephantÃ¢â¬ is a story written by George Orwell in 1936. This story takes place in Burma, one of the colonies of the British Empire.Ã Orwell found himself at the receiving end of the insults of the people of Moulmein in Lower Burma as subdivisional police officer. People sneered at him although they obeyed the rules. Orwell does not like his job there because he does not like working for their oppressors- the British.Orwell hated imperialism and he was convinced of its nature one day when he encountered an incident involving an elephant that caused trouble at a bazaar. He went to investigate the commotion, bringing his rifle. Along the way, he was informed that the elephant was already tame. Her just had an attack of Ã¢â¬Å"must.Ã¢â¬ He was informed that the elephant had now strayed in the paddy. As the people saw him walking, they followed him. Slowly there was a big crowd following him. It grew to about 2,000 people who were now behind him. As he saw the elephant, he thought that his Ã¢â¬Å"mustÃ¢â¬ was now wearing off and that the best thing to do was just to leave it alone. Thoughts went through his mind on what the best thing to do and even if he did not like to shoot the poor elephant since it no longer seemed harmful, still, he had to do it because all the people in the village followed him and rooted for him to shoot it down. He had no intention to kill an elephant. But with the people expecting him to shoot it, he seemed to have no option but to do as the crowd wishes or else he would be so unpopular to them.In a final look at the excited crowd, he shot the elephant. Death came slowly to the old elephant. He shot it several times. The crowd shouted in approval. He learned later that the natives had stripped the meat out of the elephant. He knew that he did the act only because he did not want to look like a fool.The solution, which Orwell was not able to do at all in his situation, was to take a good look at the people an d the circumstances that was causing him to suffer and then uncover the beliefs that led him to do the action that he felt compelled to do. He was forced to shoot the elephant because he had to protect his image. In the end, he felt like a puppetÃ because he just did what the crowd wanted him to do.
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
This needs to be revised by grammar - Essay Example In his work Ã¢â¬Å"Animal Rights vs. Human Rights,Ã¢â¬ Edwin Locke declares that only creatures that possess the capability of thinking, reasoning and the capacity of making choices have rights. (1) He thus makes his stand very clear against the rights of animals. On the other hand, this viewpoint is strongly opposed by Tom Regan, who is a famous philosopher providing arguments for the provision of rights to the animals. In his work, Ã¢â¬Å"The Rights of Humans and Other Animals,Ã¢â¬ Tom Regan points out a few characteristics for having rights which mainly include rational autonomy and sentience. (17) However Regan gives up on rational autonomy shortly and opposes with Locke. The other controversy that exists between Regan and Locke is the point that whether animals have a moral community like humans or they do not form. To search for a link between characteristics and rights can be classified as not being moral and neither is it a respectful behavior towards other beings. To s tart with, rational autonomy is the capability of thinking, reasoning and making choices. By rational autonomy creatures have the capacity to decide the consequences of their actions. Locke claims that animals do not need rights owing to the fact that they do not reason and nor do they take decisions which will have an effect on their lives. Also, he argues that animals are instinctual and do not have the capacity of thinking as humans. Thus there is no strong justification according to Locke for the provision of rights to animals. On the other hand Regan argues that animals are not instinctual, they are living creatures and are capable of thinking just like humans. However, it is very clearly known that not all of the animals have rational autonomy and the same implies for humans as some of them also do not possess rational autonomy. If only creatures that can think or reason and make choices have the rights (Locke 1) then too many people and animals will be excluded from this grou p. Thus rational autonomy cannot be a criterion of having rights. Regan analyzes this problem and hence disapproves with LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view. Locke asserts that rights are vital for humans, because the rational autonomy of human beings is the key element to lead a better life. Human beings need to think and make choices for choosing a path to live their lives. Locke claims that humans need rights for protecting their thoughts and themselves from other people. Thus he asserts that as long as animals are not rational they do not need rights for protecting themselves. In opposition to the justification of Locke, some animals which include dolphins, pigs are more intelligent than infants as well as mentally handicapped people. Regan argues that if rational autonomy is a criterion then these human beings would also be left out and they would also be excluded from the group of people who should be granted rights. Regan then expresses that sentience is an important characteristic for having rights. Having sentience is ability to feel pain and pleasure. By the implication of sentience as a measure for the provision of rights, all human beings irrespective of their mental state would have the approval of being granted rights. At the same time, the quality of sentience would make animals and humans equal as both of them possess the capability of sensing pain or pleasure and hence they would both deserve rights in an equal manner.
Sunday, February 9, 2020
Overview of IS Audits (DB) - Research Paper Example Likewise, the primary output is to facilitate organizations for achieving goals effectively and efficiently (Information systems control & audit1999). The impact of Information Security audit is within the organization as well as outside. For instance, managers are more concerned on the return on investment that is achieved by optimal usage of Information Technology resources and services. In this way, the stake holders are satisfied. Moreover, there are labor unions that are keen to know how organizations utilize their IT resources and services. Information System audit overview highlights the requirement for control and audit of computers and networks, auditing of information systems, review of internal controls that are implemented to mitigate risks, evidence evaluation functions along with the consideration of information system audit foundations. However, for initiating an information system audit function, there is an association of several strategies that can be applied from i nformation system auditors. Likewise, these strategies define generic steps that need to be carried out for an information system audit (Information systems control & audit1999). The scope of information system audit do not focuses on the complete life cycle for the technological architecture that is under inspection along with accuracy of computing calculations. Likewise, the scope of an information system audit is linked with its objective. One of the examples may include the policy and its enforcement within the organization, the audit then cross checks the controls, processes and procedures addressing the policy. The audit report highlights the vulnerabilities, percentage of compliance with the policy and recommendations to mitigate risks, threats or vulnerabilities. An audit for active user accounts in the Microsoft Active Directory may incorporate crosschecks
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Explain the Concept of Ideals in PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Writings Essay Ã¢â¬Å"The unexamined life is not worth livingÃ¢â¬ according to Plato. He argued that we should always pursue knowledge and ask questions to do this. A key part of PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy is epistemology Ã¢â¬â his theory of how we know things. His concept of Ideals, also known as Forms, is PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s explanation of how true knowledge can be sought. Plato understood that there are concepts that we can all recognise in various things, for example the concept of beauty. We all recognise beauty in art, nature, people, or music, and we all understand the idea when we hear the word used. Although we can all recognise beauty, our opinions of what classes as beautiful are widely varied and subjective. The conclusions Plato drew from this is that beauty must exist, otherwise we would not know it at all. This is the Perfect Form of Beauty. However, we must have only partial knowledge of it or we would not have subjective opinions. Forms are absolute versions of concepts and ideas. They are perfect ideas of everything and therefore they do not change Ã¢â¬â perfect things cannot change for the better and would not change for the worse. They are also eternal as to begin or to stop existing is a change. They cannot live in this world as it is constantly changing and forms are unchangeable, so they can only exist in the Realm of the Forms. The form of Beauty is absolute and true; it is not an opinion but an idea or concept, therefore no-one can know the real meaning of Beauty as it cannot exist in this world and it is eternal. We will never know forms fully as we are imperfect. Forms give us knowledge and allow us to have some understanding of the truth. Although, we know that we do not know them fully as we can form our own opinions on things, e.g. what is beautiful and what is not. Forms are in the Realm of the Forms, we can recognise them as this is where our soul originates from, however because they come from there and not from where we are, we do not know them fully. Also as they are perfect we cannot understand them fully. In the Realm of the Forms there are Ideals of everything we have a concept of such as Beauty, Justice, Truth, and the Form of the Good. The Form of the Good is the highest of the forms and is the foundation and essence of everything. The Form of The Good represents PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of goodness and is what you should most want. For Plato this was eudaimonia, living a good and fulfilled life. All other forms such as beauty, justice or truth are part of eudaimonia and so part of Good. The Form of the Good is therefore the most important Form as it gives us full and true knowledge of what we should pursue. It is our ultimate goal and the source of all truth and goodness. In this way, it has influenced the development of the Christian idea of God. Plato uses the Cave Allegory to present his ideas about Forms. He does this by using symbolism, by representing the Forms as objects outside of the cave. He then represents the Form of the Good as the sun; the sun shines light onto the objects outside, allowing us to see them. The light represents knowledge and the objects represent Forms Ã¢â¬â the Sun shows us the Forms and gives us knowledge. The prisonerÃ¢â¬â¢s journey illustrates PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s concept of Ideals or Forms Ã¢â¬â they provide truth but must be pursued individually and by looking away from things that keep us ignorant.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Schizophrenia and The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde :: Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
Schizophrenia and The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde The name schizophrenia is derived from "schizo", which means splitting of the mind (Tsuang 11), and "phrenia" which is derived from the phrenic area which is just above the kidneys where the diaphragm is located. It is a structure innervated by the phrenic nerve. The Greeks and others assumed that the phrenic area was the seat of thought or at least feelings (Berle 12). Up to the 1600s, people with psychotic disorders were sent off in "ships of fools", locked in cages, "flogged into reason", or killed. The care for the insane at this time was the responsibility of nuns and monks (Noll, xviii). In the 1700s, "mad doctors" or doctors specializing in the mentally ill. "They began to devise their own unique classification system for mental disorders. Many cases of what we would now call schizophrenia were probably classified under one or more of these early attempts to devise a more scientific method of understanding mental illness"(Noll, xix). Doctors at this time described the symptoms of schizophrenia somewhat differently (Berle, 14). In 1809, the first clinical descriptions of schizophrenia were written by J. Haslam, however, later it was found that he described a disease called hebephrenia. Some symptoms he included were: loss of memory, more prevalent in females, sensibility blunted, onset at puberty, unconnected with heredity, cyclic, no affection towards parents, inactivity, apathetic, inattention to cleanliness, etc. (Berle 4,5). There is still no unanimously accepted definition of schizophrenia, and appreciable differences exist between the narrowest and widest definition (Tsuang 13). It is a disease that includes a disturbance in cognition that renders the individual "out of touch with reality". Emotions are distorted in schizophrenia and they are typified by being socially withdrawn (Lahey 555). The characteristic symptoms start between the age of 18 and 30. Symptoms include hallucinations and/or delusions. Hallucinations can have various modes. Auditory hallucinations are the most common. These may involve hearing a voice or voices talking to each other and/or to the patient. Visual hallucinations are less common and involve the patient believing they see an object that is not present. Tactile hallucinations are the least common and involve the patient thinking that someone or something is touching them (Nienhuis). Delusions are false or irrational beliefs that are firmly held despite obvious evidence to the contrary. Most common are persecutory, grandiose, and religious delusions.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
This paper is a formal analysis of the Marble grave stele with a family group relief sculpture. It is a pentelic marble style relief standing at 171. 1cm tall carved by a master. It is from the Late Classical period of Greek, Attic which was completed around ca. 360 B. C. . I chose to analyze this piece as apposed to the others because IÃ¢â¬â¢m mainly attracted to art and sculptures from the Greek era. The overall color used in this relief is ivory with a few cracks and pieces broken off. There is some discoloration which causes the color to come off as slightly light brown for most of the relief. The sculpture appears larger compared to the other sculptures in the art room. It represents a family which includes a man, his wife, and their child united on one high relief. There is a fourth character that is a part of the relief but she appears to be incomplete. The high relief contributes to the overall size of this sculpture by expanding the shape and proportions of all the characters. The right side is compact consisting of three of the four characters while the left is loose with just a head present. The very first thing that my eyes are directed to is of the man sitting on a backless chair on the center-right side of the relief. He along with his chair is positioned where his whole body is shifted and he facing the left side of the relief and looking straight ahead. His hands are the only ones that are detailed to the extent that they show the definition of the finger nails and the wrinkles and creases on the fingers and knuckle area. The left hand is placed on his lap while the right hand is slightly wrapped around and holding a stick that is to his right side and is eye-level in front of the woman standing behind him. The stick is about an inch wide and round and looks as though it could possibly be a wooden cane for support. His body does somewhat look as though he is in shape although I canÃ¢â¬â¢t see any muscle definition partially due to the fact that his robe is blocking the front of his stomach. There also seems to be no body rolls and no body fat present. His attire is just a robe draped around his waist, over his lap and covering his legs all the way down to his feet. You can see that the excess material of the robe around his waist was intended for his whole body because of the multiple layers draped over his lap. There are no details of his toes or feet because of the missing piece of the relief but youÃ¢â¬â¢re able to see just the back of his foot. His inch long hair and full facial beard look extremely wavy and curly. The fact that his facial hair is present and thick on his face makes me assume that he is possibly in his forties although many men back in that time didnÃ¢â¬â¢t live that long. He is sitting with ease and his face seems calm all the while staring blankly ahead. Looking at his face straight on, there seems to be no emotion in his eyes. My eyes are then shifted towards the woman on the right side of the relief. The woman seems to be his wife and is shown standing extremely close to him. Since the chair is backless, I think her standing so close behind him depicts her unity with him. It seems as though she is his support and is there to follow him. She is right up against his back with her right hand up by her chest and his head. The wife and childÃ¢â¬â¢s attire displays a robe draped over the entire body leaving only her arms exposed although the wife has sleeves draping all the way down behind her forearm. The robe drapes over the wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s head like a shawl or veil covering the back half of her head including her hair and ears. Her facial expression gives off a sense of sadness even though she is staring blankly ahead in the same direction as the husband. Compared to the man, her eyes arenÃ¢â¬â¢t as widely open and it seems as if she is slightly squinting giving me the idea that she may be crying or is holding it in. Overall, you can tell that she has no other emotion displayed on her face besides sadness. After examining the wife, I work my way down to the awkward and odd looking child standing in front of the mother and is facing forward, opposite of the parents. IÃ¢â¬â¢m not too sure whether the child is a male or female but based on the fact that she is basically fully clothed, I would say itÃ¢â¬â¢s a female. I describe the girl as awkward and odd looking because she is extremely tiny compared to her parents. Her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s hand is the same size as her head, maybe even slightly bigger. She looks like she can be the same size as a toddler but her body looks as though itÃ¢â¬â¢s close to being fully developed, almost like a shrunken lady. The girl is holding something in her left hand which looks like a small piece of paper. She is holding her mothers left hand with her right hand and the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s hand looks as though she is gently and delicately holding hers. She is standing behind her father but is slightly closer to his left side while her right arm is leaning on the chair. She is wearing a similar robe as her mothers except she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a veil and the sleeves end at her armpits exposing her shoulder and arms. The expression on her face shows no emotion and she is also staring blankly ahead. Because there is no emotion on her face and since she is only a child, I assume she is at that age where sheÃ¢â¬â¢s not aware of whatÃ¢â¬â¢s going on yet. She doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to comprehend the presence of sadness with along with the adults. The last person I look at is a woman on the upper left-hand corner of the relief. Her whole body is basically missing except for her head which remains fully intact. Her hair looks exactly the same as the wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s hair but she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a veil covering it. Looking at both the woman on the upper left corner and the wife on the right, both of their earlobes seem to have a perfect tiny hole in them which leads me to assume that they may have been pierced. The only other body part of hers that appears on the relief is her left shoulder and her left forearm which looks like it is leaning against the manÃ¢â¬â¢s right arm. IÃ¢â¬â¢m not sure if her body is purposely missing because part of the relief had broken off over the years but it seems as though it signifies her as invisible or non-existent. Her eyes are clearly staring at the man sitting down with the sense of sadness and disappointment. She is looking straight at the man but he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to acknowledge her and is looking straight ahead along with his wife which also gives me a reason to think sheÃ¢â¬â¢s invisible to them. The bottom parts of the marble sculpture which is the base floor that the man is sitting on, and the wife and child are standing on is severely broken and cracked. The only detail on the bottom floor that I can see are three of the wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s toes wearing a sandal and the childÃ¢â¬â¢s feet which look like she is wearing slippers because there are no sign of toes. You can also see the back of the manÃ¢â¬â¢s shoes. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think he is wearing sandals because you can clearly see there is no flesh showing. The artist seems to use a lot of thick lines mainly defined on the clothing where youÃ¢â¬â¢re able to see multiple folds of the fabric. They all seem to be standing close together as if they are discussing something and because of their sad expressions, they seem to be mourning a death or event that just happened. All their lips seem to curve down on the corners of their mouths with no sign of smiling or even a smirk. None of them are smiling and all four characters have either a melancholy blank stare or sad emotion. All of their eyes have creases but no sign of pupil color except for the slight shadows within the eye which helps to tell which direction their eyes are staring. While staring and piecing the whole relief together, I assume that the woman on the left is actually their daughter since this is a family group sculpture. Going back to the through of her being invisible to the other three leads to my guess that she might possibly be dead. This would explain the overall sadness that is present at the moment. The parents are mourning the death of their daughter while her head present and body missing signifies that she is still there with them, just not physically. Another little detail that I previously noticed was the daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s left forearm leaning against her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s arm. This gives the effect that the daughter is trying to comfort her father while he is grieving. This work shows the natural emotion of humans and they are displayed as realistic. I think that the overall emotion and story behind this relief is done exquisitely by the master who carved it which is why it is said to be one of the most moving funerary reliefs from the Late Classical period.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Abstract In this essay the meaning of social psychology will be introduced. The differences and similarities social psychology shares with certain fields of psychology will be clarified throughout this essay. Specific subjects such as attitudes, group behaviors, and other related sources will be cited throughout this essay. Some of the research methods used in social psychology to determine how individuals affect groups or how groups affect an individual will be discussed in this essay. Keywords: group behaviors, social cognition, attitudes, prejudice and discrimination Social Psychology Social psychology is the branch of psychology which studies the behavior of an individual in the society. Social Psychology is a scientific study, which tells society what people think about, how they influence one another, and how they relate to each other, as an individual. Through experimental research, social psychologists are able to tell us how our social interactions affect us as individuals. Definition of Social Psychology Ã¢â¬Å"Social psychology is a science that studies the influences of our situations, with special attention to how we view and affect one anotherÃ¢â¬ (Myers, 2010). Therefore, it is a scientific study of how individuals think about, relate to, and influence each other (Myers, 2010). Components of social psychology include social influences, social relations, and social thinking. Social influences include an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s culture and pressure of conforming. SocialShow MoreRelatedSocial Psychology And Its Impact On Individual Behavior1262 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSocial psychology has evolved through history and its developments and contributions have been remarkable. This specialized area of psychology studies various topics that are significant for human beings (Ross, Lepper, Ward, 2010). 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In the short span in which social psychology has existed, began with the work of the Norman Triplett in the late 1890s. Tripletts work at Indiana University was primarily experimentation with people in competitive settings. Gordon Allport followed Tripletts experimentation with his observations the attitudes of individuals and the study of the self. While these contributions to the history of social psychologyRead MoreSocial Psychology: The Study of Influences Essay1420 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthat has been explored. Psychology, or the study of Ã¢â¬Å"whyÃ¢â¬ , has been attempting to answer such questions for centuries. Although there are many answers (reflected in the number of schools of psychology), Social psychology attempts to explain the environmental factors that lead to a person behavior. By definition, Social Psychology is Ã¢â¬Å"the study of the manner in which the personality, attitudes , motivations, and behavior of the individual influence and are influenced by social groupsÃ¢â¬ (Merriam-Webster